Friday, 25 September 2020

Planning ahead - The Spanish Army - First Thoughts

With the French army project finished, and the completion of the Anglo-Portuguese army within spitting distance, my thoughts are turning to what I should do next. My choice is to do a full Spanish army, or a large Spanish contingent to fight along side Anglo-Portuguese, or to switch tack entirely and plumb for the Sudan to add a colonial period to my gaming choices. 

I'd really like to go for the Sudan but, I know that if I do I may never return to do the Spanish any kind of justice. I will have become side tracked.

Consequently, I've decided to bite the bullet and go for a full Spanish army. By that I mean collecting thirty or so units plus artillery, command, etc. That will be enough to fight a good sized battle, and there will be enough variation to do a wargame campaign. It will not be quite as large as the other two armies but it will be large enough to do a job. This will be a big commitment for me, in time and cash.

What follows is my thought process on what my army will look like. Many of you will probably know a lot more about Spanish armies than I do, so if I'm wrong on any point please feel free to chip in and correct me. Also, if you know of any good online resources that might fill gaps in my knowledge, please point me to them. 

Unlike the French and Anglo-Portuguese, collecting a Spanish army poses lots of problems. This is especially the case regarding infantry units.

My first problem is the limited amount of books I own on Spanish armies. 

The second is the thoroughly disorganised state of the supply of uniforms in the period 1809 - 1812. It seems that, unless you want to do 1808 - 1809, or post the supply of a new national uniform by the British from 1812, uniform information on specific Spanish units is often very hard to pin down. More anon...

The third problem is one of dating the army. Generally speaking, units in a French or Anglo-Portuguse army can fight right through the war. With the Spanish, this is not the case. One look at the uniform a Spanish soldier is wearing will generally put him into one of three roughly dated periods: 1808 - 1809, 1810 - 1812, and post 1812. As far as a generic wargame army is concerned, I suppose this is only a problem of aesthetics but, if you go too eclectic date wise, the army will require some imagination to believe when fighting in any of the historical sub-periods. 

When it comes to the evolution of Spanish uniforms in the Napoleonic Wars, and how it will effect the building of a wargame army, I think of the history like this:

Although, in the first year of the war, Spanish patriotism and daring do had a certain charm, Spanish armies dated this early usually left a lot to be desired. This is especially true when they were called upon to fight in the open field - and, let's face it, on a wargame table that is what they will most often need to do. 

In the early period there are a lot of newly raised, short lived volunteer units, only partly uniformed and of dubious battle-worthiness. Their durability as wargame units is limited; those that went on into the war soon became uniformed and more regularised, so I must ask myself how useful partly uniformed units would be in the long run. 

The advantage of the early period lies in the 'old regime' regular army units. In their white coats with regimental facing colours and bicorne hats, they are well documented and always look very Spanish to me. As a painter, the definite information on these early units is fantastic. However, most of the white uniforms had worn out by 1809 and, as far as I can see, were replaced by simpler less well documented uniforms in a variety of colours, many supplied by Britain. Information can be scant when it comes to this uniform transition. You find references to some units but not all. The more units you are planning to collect the more this becomes a problem. 

As the years rolled on, through the latter part of 1809 to 1812, units were issued new uniforms in an array of styles and colours.  I have plenty of plates showing these but, on the whole, not many give specific units names and this is proving to be a bit of a riddle. This is also the time that the volunteer units were disbanded or regularised, often with several being rolled into one, renamed and given a new uniform - riddles within riddles. 

Few uniforms seem to have been produced domestically; most uniforms seem to have been imported from Britain or Portugal. As alluded to earlier, there was little attempt at standardisation and I have more information on where the uniforms were unloaded than which units got them.  Coats, often a simple coatee, came in brown, dark and light blue, grey, red, and green with collars and cuffs, sometimes with lapels too, in a facing colour (most often red, light blue or yellow). There were units in shakos (bell topped and conical), top hats, and even Tarleton style helmets. Bicornes, outside those worn by officers, seem to have disappeared at this point. This is the 'uniform sub-period' I'm most attracted to because of its diverse nature; it is what my imagination conjours up when I think of Napoleonic Spanish armies. Unfortunately, it is the most confusing of the three uniform sub-periods.

Post 1812, largely supported by British imports, a national uniform had begun to emerge out of the chaos. From this point on, Spanish armies begin to look more homogeneous: Coats largely become dark or light blue, often with red collars and cuffs, and shakos predominate. By 1814 most units have attained a definitive uniform and these become well documented again. This is definitely the easiest uniform sub-period to collect. Unfortunately, as far as I'm concerned, it is the most boring: The Spanish army has become just one more shako wearing Napoleonic army and most of the quirkiness and romance has gone.

All in all, my problems are made harder by the number of infantry units I'm going to collect. My aim, at present, is to amass an army comprising twenty four infantry units. 

So, what to do? 

Given that the information I have, though growing, is limited, I'm going to go for a generic Spanish army dated 1809 - 1812. Indeed, the only criteria I'm going to apply to the units I will collect will be that they must have existed between 1809 and mid 1812 in the uniform I will paint them in. 

I will retain license to do four old regular regimental units (two regiments of two battalions each) in white coats with coloured facings and bicornes. Plus, I'll also do Irlanda and Reding (Swiss) in bicornes. 

If push comes to shove and I can't find enough information to do another eighteen different uniforms (perhaps less if I do two battalions of some) I might also do a few units in the 1812 uniform - most probably the units of cacadores. 

When it comes to lacking information, except in a minority of cases, I'm totally in the dark when it comes to deciding which flags a unit will carry. Flags are proving to be a headache, full stop. In the catalogues (GMB and Adolfo Ramos), most flags are described by the regional coats of arms they bear. Were all units recruited in a particular region given the same flag? Are these flags based on those that were assigned to the well documented 'old regime' regiments that existed when the war started? To me, this is a very basic question but, I can't find the answer anywhere. Is this question fudged by most collectors? Another question I have is to do with the number of flags a battalion would carry. Somewhere, I've read that most battalions only carried one of their flags into battle (I think each battalion actually had Colonel's colour and Regimental colour and unused flags were stored in churches). I think two flags, especially where they look quite different, looks better - is giving a unit two flags a big no no? 

The cavalry (seven units) and guns (six), due to lower unit count, aren't proving so difficult. I think it will be a case of picking the prettiest when it comes to the cavalry, and guns are just guns.

Looking at my problems, this is all going to take some time to sort out.

In my next Spanish Peninsular Project post, I'll give you what I've come up with and list of the web links I've used. There are some useful ones out there.

Thursday, 10 September 2020

French Army Project Finished: Roll Call

Long time no post - I've been busy!

I have chosen the title for this post with some thought. The project is finished, my lead pile is no more but, the army isn't quite finished. I will need to add a unit of Chasseurs a Cheval and I still have room on the French shelves for four more units of infantry - probably two units of line and two of legere. However, given the existing infantry footprint, the extra infantry would almost certainly be surplus to requirements.  

Having got that off my chest, let's get on to the review the army on parade. I'll just put my painting arm inside the front of my coat and....

Here are the French, all painted and based. In total there are thirty eight units. It's the first time I've had them all out together and, to be frank, I was surprised by their footprint. Paraded on a frontage of just short of six feet, they take up a pretty big area. There are more than enough figures to play with on a table the size of mine.

All figures are Front Rank

There are eight units of cavalry comprising four regiments of dragoons (4th, 8th, 15th & 20th) two chasseurs a cheval (7th &22nd), a unit of hussars (1st) and a unit lancers (Vistula).

Each unit is 12 figures strong based on six 45mm x 60mm stands. 

There are four batteries of two guns (three foot and one horse).  There are four limbers, one per battery.

This, given that a division was normally allotted only one battery, is more than enough guns for Peninsular games. When playing multiple division games at a scale of one infantry unit per 1000 men, one gun is nearer to the correct frontage than two guns so, again this is more than enough artillery. 

Here are the eighteen units of line infantry. 

There are 12 battalions of French infantry and six battalions of foreign infantry. Each unit is twenty four figures strong on four stands, and each unit has an additional two stands of two skirmishers on round bases. All basing is 45mm x 45mm or 45mm diameter.

The French line units comprise two battalions each of the 27th, 36th, 39th, 50th, 1st Paris Municipal Guard (in white coats) and two units of reserve grenadiers. I'm counting the grenadiers as line units because, in extremis, they could stand in as such. 

The foreign line units comprise two battalions each of 4th Swiss, 4th Vistula and 2nd Nassau. This mix was chosen for colour alone and it's a decision I'm more than happy with.

There are eight units of light infantry; five are French and three are foreign. These units are based as per the line infantry except that each has an extra stand of skirmishers (30 figures each in total) and those posed in firing line are on bases 60mm deep to prevent 'figure clash'.

The French legere comprise three battalions of the 2nd and two of the 4th (the latter in firing line pose).

The foreign legere, again chosen for colour, comprise one battalion each of the Legion Du Midi, Regiment Irlandais and Legion Hannovrienne.

Also pictured here are the army's C-in-C stand, eight 'divisional' command stands, and a singly based officer of engineers (for scenarios requiring one - bridge demolition, pontoon bridge ops, etc.). The C-in-C is based on a 120mm x 75mm pill box shape; the others are 60mm diameter.  

Of the four new cavalry units present are the 20th Dragoons with their yellow facings (and behind them the 15th with pink facings) which look very fetching. 
Among the new command stands there are these resplendent fellows.
Among the eight new units of infantry figures are these of the 4th legere. If I were buying again, I would not go for the firing line poses. I much prefer the square basing of the marching line units.
The Swiss look fantastic in their red coats with sky blue facings, and the elite company distinctions are excellent. The 4th regiment's grenadier bearskins did not have brass front plates so I had to cover them over with Milliput prior to painting.
Blue and yellow is also one of my favourite combinations of colours. That being the case Poles of the Vistula legion were a must. 

There were many variations of uniform description in the available sources for this unit. I went with the most striking: The white epaulettes on the grenadier uniforms only appeared in pictures but looked too distinctive to miss out on.

These are of the 4th Vistula Regiment. 

Gonsalvo's blog was very useful here.

Units of converged grenadier companies appear in quite a few notable OOB and for that reason I chose to include two units in mine. As well as looking brightly coloured, with plumes galore, they can serve as ordinary line infantry if I run out of genuine line units. 

There was much debate on the inclusion of grenadier skirmish stands but, in the end, I did them so they could double up as line infantry units. 

Although the horse artillery isn't a new unit, this is a picture of them fully based up and they look even better now. Again, the colour of them is splendid.

Finally, a picture of the newest artillery unit with its caisson. French artillery caissons are fantastic (this one modelled with an open 'pinned lid') as the front is a Gribeauval limber. The caisson is not glued on so it can be taken off, leaving the front wheeled limber section, to be used as a normal limber if the guns need to move. 

If I had thought about this before purchasing my limbers I would have bought two as they can also be used as baggage train elements - anything that counts as a wargaming 'double bubble' gets my vote! 

So, what is the total head count? It's this:
  • 778 foot figures
  • 124 mounted figures
  • 8 guns
  • 4 limbers (inc. 1 caisson)
  • 8 riderless horses
All in all I'm very happy with this lot but, I'm glad they are done and behind me now. I still have fourteen units of British left to do to finish the other half of the Peninsular project. I suppose I'll get onto them next but not for a while, I have a shed load of commissions to plough through first.

Friday, 10 July 2020

Two new additions and a spot of basing

Over past few months I've managed to paint quite a few new units for my Peninsular collection but, I haven't based any of them beyond sticking the figures onto their stands. Nor had I finished the whole collection's skirmisher stands, which I had pulled off square bases and glued to round bases at the very start of the Covid lock down. 

At the weekend, looking at the growing number of new units plus all of the skirmisher bases, and realising that until they were done the collection was unplayable, I finally decided to bite the basing bullet and get myself up to date and 'table ready'. 

The collection, now standing at 52 units plus commanders, is ready to fight again. 

Including the two horse artillery batteries, here are the 14 virgin units (seven a side) and two 'C-in-C' stands that have been added to the collection since the start of lock down. They, along with the aforementioned re-based skirmish stands (not pictured), are now completely finished and ready to take to the table. 

Amongst the units above are two previously un-posted additions. 

These are two battalions of the 4th Vistula.
Yellow and blue is always a nice combination of colours, especially when mixed with a good quantity of black and white to set them off. 

Thanks to Peter (aka Gonsalvo) for posting uniform information on his blog.
Figures are Front Rank, flags are GMB designs. Painted by yours truly using Humbrol enamels.
Next up, two battalions of 4th Swiss - which I'll base as soon as they are painted. That will be another milestone as it leaves less than 10 units in the French lead pile: It's the final countdown - cue Europe.

Monday, 22 June 2020

New additions for the Peninsular

Although painting my own stuff has slowed a little, I'm making serious inroads into this project now. The French and Anglo-Portuguese armies each have eighteen battalions of infantry, four cavalry regiments, six guns with three limbers, and seven command groups painted. That's about two thirds of everything done and, what is more, my lead pile is (except for one unit of British cavalry) fully loaded and ready for the final push.

And, I'm getting pretty close to the point where I can actually press each army to a finish individually. The French are currently eight infantry battalions, four cavalry regiments, two guns and a handful of command stands shy of completion. The British have a few figures more to do.

The latest painted batch comprises two units of British infantry and two units of horse artillery, one French and one British.

Here are the two battalions of British infantry.

One (Coldstream Guards) appeared in the previous blog entry as the subject of my painting with enamels post and consequently I'm going to omit close up photographs of that unit as they already exist.

All figures are by Front Rank. Flags are by Flags for the Lads. Round bases are by War Bases. All figures were painted by yours truly using enamels.
My second unit of British guards is the 3rd Foot Guards.

Note that I managed to get the flag position right this time around.😊
They complete the eight units for the mighty British First Division.

My 1st Division (at over 7,500 men) will comprise eight units: Two battalions of guards (Coldstream and 3rd); two KGL battalions (1st & 2nd KGL), two battalions of Highlanders (79th & 92nd), a battalion of Highland Light Infantry (71st) and a battalion of British line (24th).

It was the biggest division in the British Peninsular army by some margin and had some of the most easily identifiable troops (all of the guards and highlanders).

Two guns and a limber for my French artillery park.

Horse artillery always has a certain panache and these French gunners are a particularly fine example.

At my 'divisional scale', where 1 battalion is fielded for each 1000 men present, artillery batteries will only be fielded as single guns, so two guns of horse artillery will be enough.

Should I have more limbers? Time will tell.

I've fudged the uniform for my French horse artillery train drivers as my sources differ greatly as to what it was. Some sources show fringed epaulettes others just a red shoulder strap; some show red lapels and collars whilst others show black sometimes piped red; some show a shako without a red upper band, others with. It was an unresolved  nightmare researching these guys.

As a consequence and with a gallic shrug, I've simply painted what I thought looked best / right.
British horse artillery.

The tarleton helmets make these fellows stand out.

Again my information on the drivers was incomplete and I only had a picture showing what they looked like from the front (in Funcken). Annoyingly, their uniform (as with French drivers) is very different to that of the gunners.
The lace on the back of the gunner's jackets had to be done free hand. I think I would have preferred it if this detail had been part of the casting, it would have made painting a pleasure rather than a chore.

So, there they are. The latest four units.

Next up: I'm going to do four units of French infantry starting with two battalions of Vistula Legion Poles (4th Regt.); and four light battalions for my Light Division, starting with two battalions of British Light Infantry (52nd & 43rd).

After those eight units are done, I'm going to make a push to complete the French part of the project. That will feel good!

Sunday, 24 May 2020

How I Paint In Enamels. Part 3 - Painting

There was a query last week about the size of the Artmaster, Pearl series, 5/0 brushes I use, saying that I must use something much larger. I think I know where this query came from - like clothes, brush sizes don't mean the same thing to different manufacturers - so, for avoidance of doubt, the picture above shows the three brushes I use most next to a centimetre scale. 

The 10/0 doesn't come out that much and I generally use it for things like buttons. The 5/0 is the most used, I pretty much use it for all figure highlighting, belts, hair and hats. The 3/0 is used for big base coats on figures and the bulk of the painting of horses, and other big items, that require big broad strokes.

I must also, at this stage, point out that that this is not a 'how to use a brush' lesson. Painting is about what feels comfortable and becoming proficient at brush handling only comes with regular practice, the more the better. However, I thought I'd take a picture of my painting position. You will note that both hands, and the figure, are braced against the surface of the desk; both elbows are resting on the arms of my painting chair: The position is solid. There are no floppy arms, or hands, and consequently the paintbrush is completely under my control.

Onto the painting. The subject is a battalion of Coldstream Guards for the Peninsular War. The batch is 28 figures by Front Rank Figurines.

Flesh base coat.

This is Humbrol 73 [Wine].

It was applied with a 3/0 brush.

As you can see, I feel no need to be neat here and I make sure that the paint covers every scrap of bare flesh. Neatness at this stage is a waste of my time.

Also note how dark this colour is. I find that a very bold base flesh colour gives faces more character than something more realistically muted. Remember, we are dealing with very small things at this scale and anything less would not be visible except at very close distances. I like my faces to 'pop'.

The flesh tones.

Humbrol 61 [Flesh] on the left, and the same mixed with Humbrol 34 [white].

I've taken this photo to show you the different shades that I used so that you can clearly see that the difference isn't subtle. It is my view that when you are using the three tier colouring system (base coat and two highlights) that contrast in shades should be quite bold.

Note: Obviously I didn't mix the highlight until it was required, in fact I added the neat flesh colour to the palette after doing the highlighting purely for the purposes of the photo - and just so you know, I'll probably do this throughout this post. 

Next, using a 5/0 brush, I add the first flesh colour. This is neat H.61.

I apply this to the cheaks in two broad V shapes, forehead, chin and lips, not forgetting the ears and a spot of paint on the neck under them.

The hands are done at the same time with a 'U' or 'UU' shape on the back of the hand (base of the letter at the knuckles). Then a gentle drawn stroke crosswise across the figures, sometimes repeated; this is not a dry brush as such as there is plenty of paint on the brush, and I'm not playing the washboard.

Some painters stop at this point, thinking two colours are enough, but the colour is flat and lifeless. The second highlight is the one that makes the difference and gives depth.

Face highlight. Using the mix of flesh and white I now go over the neat flesh tone, in the same way, with thinner lines and spots. This should leave a little of the previous coat showing. I used a 5/0 brush.

Note the forehead has been done with three lines / dabs. This was done to add a bit of 'worry' and a 'raised eyebrow' to the man.

The nose is only highlighted down the bridge and not the sides.

Note that I don't highlight the lips. Realistically they should be pinker but, I find that figures painted with pink / red lips look like they are wearing lipstick - so I don't.

Note that I don't do eyes. Some painters are very good at doing eyes and, at a pinch, I'm okay at them. However, they can be very time consuming for the difference they make, and if you don't get it exactly right you can completely cock figures up - all you see are men with eyes like a goldfish or, nearly as bad, funny squints. Being a unit painter, rather than someone who concentrates on painting individual figures, I haven't painted eyes on figures for years. I haven't touched on this before, but there is a great deal of difference between the two kinds of painter and you should probably choose which you want to be: Unit painters go for overall effect; individual figure painters go for magnifying glass perfection. Individual figure painters have great looking figures but very rarely have armies of them, and that's the rub - perfection, in my opinion, takes too much time and that is why I'm a unit painter.

The hands are treated in exactly the same way except that the fingers are highlighted individually and, if you want to be flash, you can do knuckles.
The red base colour for the infantryman's coat. This is a mix of Humbrol 60 [Scarlet] and Humbrol 33 [Black]. 

I've shown the scarlet next to the base coat to show how dark I go.
I apply this to the coat with a 3/0 brush without much care for neatness. Again, taking time to be neat is a waste of time at this point, it is more important to cover everything.

Note that I also painted the base of the fusilier 'pom poms' at this point to save time later

This isn't a great photo, I'm afraid. The actual red colour is nearer to that in the shot of the pallete above. However, the base colour does need to be dark because the recesses, say between arm and body, go deep. If in doubt when painting, I find better results are obtained by being bold and there is no point painting a highlight unless you can clearly see it.

The first highlight is now applied using neat Humbrol 60 [Scarlet] and a 5/0 brush.
Note that I don't wholly follow the 'contours' of the sculpt. Sometimes you have to make things stand out - like elbows. 

Where lines do exist, like the pleats in the back of the coat, they should be obeyed. 

If  you have not used this method of painting before, and you decide to try it, you will notice how much easier it is to leave a thin line than to paint one. This is the secret to this style of painting.
 The final highlight is Humbrol 60 [Scarlet] and Humbrol 24 [Trainer Yellow]. This mix is quite orange.
This should be applied over the first highlight without fully covering it.

 The facings for Royal Regiments (including all foot guards) are blue. The base colour is a mix of Humbrol 25 (Blue) and Humbrol 33 [Black].
We are now applying a new colour on next to a completed colour so neatness is required. The edges, where the blue meets the red, need to be crisp. 

The blue is highlighted using neat Humbrol 25 (Blue) followed by Humbrol 25 mixed with Humbrol 34 [White]. 
The facings of the Coldstreams was a dark blue, but dark blue often looks black if it is not highlighted up a shade. 
The final highlight should not be over done, just a small stroke on the sides of the collar and unlaced cuff is all that is needed, otherwise it will look too light overall.
Next up is the white. A lot of people like my white, and so do I. 

I've messed around with all manner of base shades for white - mostly pale greys - over the years, none of which I was happy with. 

Some years ago a client asked if I could paint some figures for him using a murky white. I tried using Humbrol 84 [Mid Stone] as a base colour and I've never looked back. For some reason it just works.

The first highlight is much lighter than the base colour but uses the same base colour mixed with plenty of Humbrol 34 [White].
The first highlight should cover almost all of the base colour. It is important to be very neat, leaving the base colour showing where strap goes over strap, etc. The first highlight defines everything.

Note that whilst the first highlight was drying I decided to start applying the grey to the trousers of some figures for variety. 

The base for this grey was Humbrol 33 [Black] mixed with Humbrol 89 [Middle Blue]. I find that that simply mixing black and white makes a grey too 'flat'. Using a blue spices it up a bit.

I applied the dark blue / grey base coat to the 'bed roll' on top of the backpack, some figures in grey trousers trousers, and the canteen.

The final highlight for the white belts, etc. is, unsurprisingly, pure Humbrol 34 [White].  

Notice, on the trousers, how I take liberties with how and what is highlighted on the casting. Some of the creases are, quite literally, painted on where they don't exist.
Next I did the first highlight on the canteen using Humbrol 89 [Middle Blue] mixed with a little Humbrol 33 [Black] to grey it slightly, and Humbrol 34 [White] to lighten it.
This is spotted around the facing edge of the canteen. I do not bother painting the sides of the canteen as these will be lost under the strap or 'fall into shade'.
The second highlight is just one shade lighter - more Humbrol 34 to the mix - and this is applied in smaller spots of paint. 

British canteens catch the eye for some reason, so it pays to take a little care with them. 
 I don't waste the remaining paint. I simply add balck to it to get a grey and apply it to the 'bed rolls' and grey trousers. 

This second highlight used the same base further lightened with more Humbrol 34 [White].
Some figures, again for variety, will have brown trousers. 

I wanted something striking so I mixed up some Humbrol 73 [Wine] and Humbrol 33 [Black]. The same colour was used as the base coat for the figures hair.
 The brown trousers were highlighted with neat Humbrol 73 [Wine] and then highlighted again with Humbrol 73 mixed with Humbrol 24 [Trainer Yellow]. 

Overall, this gives a very warm red brown. This picture shows two figures with coloured trousers.
The 'bed roll' was done at the same time as some figures were given grey trousers.
Next up, another brown. This time Humbrol 160 [German Cammo Red Brown] and Humbrol 33 [Black] was applied as a base coat for the musket stock and canteen strap.
Again neatness is required.
 The first highlight for the musket is neat Humbrol 160. The second highlight is the same with a little Humbrol 34 [White]. This is also used as the first highlight for the canteen strap - lightened again for the strap's second highlight.
When highlighting the musket it is useful to use broken strokes.

Note that black has been added in this shot.
Doing black is, IMHO, the worst job. I hate doing black: I've just spent hours covering one load of it up!

I apply black to all of the black leather equipment, and to anything made of metal, such as musket barrels, swords and buttons.

Metals work best on a black base coat.

Whilst the black was drying I did the officers sashes. 

Historically these were crimson, which to my mind has a pinkish hue. 

For the base of this colour I use Humbrol 153 [Insignia Red]. This red is a harder colour than Humbrol 60 [Scarlet]. I mix it with Humbrol 33 [Black] for the base coat, I use pure 153 for the first highlight, and 153 [Insignia Red] and 34 [White] for the second highlight. 

You can distinguish between the two reds (coats and sashes) quite easily. 

I did the first black highlight on the hats, boots, packs, etc.

I also did the leather tops of the officers boots using neat Humbrol 160. I highlighted the leathert with Humbrol 62 (Leather), lightened for the second highlight with Humbrol 63 (Sand).
The first highlight for black is very dark. You want your black to look black not grey. It uses a little Humbrol 89 [Mid Blue]. 

The second highlight is the same mix lightened with Humbrol 34 [White].

Both highlights can be seen here.
This last highlight for the black is applied quite sparingly. Again, you don't want your black to be too grey. 
The last colours I ever do are metals.

I do my white metal buttons, swords and musket barrels with Humbrol 56 [Aluminium]. 

Although I didn't take a picture, I highlight swords and barrels with acrylic silver - by Model Colour - because it is very shiny, much shinier than any Humbrol colour. 

I don't highlight buttons.

All that is needed now is to do the flags and do the yellow metals. 

I do anything in yellow metal using an acrylic brass - by Model colour.

Generally, I don't highlight yellow metal on figures unless it defines something as different.  For these figures I highlighted the spear points on the flags to make them look different to the cords. I highlighted the brass by mixing it with a little silver. 

I should probably highlight epaulettes, but I can barely notice the difference when I do, and I'm lazy, so I don't.

For doing the edges of paper flags I use acrylic ink blocks by Derwent Inktense. 

For this I use a reservoir brush. This has water in the handle that you can squeeze through the bristles when mixing. 

I absolutely love using both of these products together, and the inks mix well when trying to match a colour on a paper flag.

And this is what the Coldstream Guards look like when painted.

Oh, I forgot to mention the green shako tufts on the light coy. These were Humbrol 150 [Forest green]. 

Base coat with a little Humbrol 33 Black, neat first highlight and second highlight with a little Humbrol 24 [Trainer Yellow].

 Not too shoddy.
 They took just over 14.5 hours to do.

I'll get round to basing them at some point.
I hope this post will prove useful to someone. When I next do horses and guns, I'll do a post on how I do them too.