Sunday, 8 July 2018

An unusual item FOR SALE.

FOR SALE 
The mould for an ancient transport / merchant ship.

Over the years I have collected a few 1:600 Xyston galleys for playing ancient naval games. In fact, I've collected this lot. 


However, like a lot of gamers I baulk at spending money on the things that don't actually fight. In this case it was transport / merchant ships which, although very useful for scenarios, and essential for re-fighting some historical battles, are quite pricey at £7.00 each. But, you do need them eventually, and you can see mine in this shot (top right). 




Only two of my transports are Xyston models, which Dan F. of Wargames Illustrated gave to me (with a small fleet of painted triremes) for hosting an ancient naval photo shoot for the magazine. The rest are home made, like the one pictured above. 



I made a master and a mould some time ago, and then I cast ten hulls (three still to paint). I did a post on it at the time. (If you need a 'how to').

Having made the transports I need, I want to pass on the mould. It comes complete with the master, so there can be no doubt that this is a kosher model without copyright issues. It doesn't come with sails but anyone who collects Xyston ships will have an abundance of spare sails because you get two sets (furled and unfurled) with every model you buy.

So, how much do I want for this unusual item? 

I'm asking just £25 including postage (in U.K.).  Payment accepted by BACS or Pay Pal.

You can cast a dozen or so for yourself by melting down some scrap metal (or plumbers solder) then sell the mould on to someone else. It should prove to be a zero sum purchase in the long run.

If you are interested, email me at: olicanaps@gmail.com

Thursday, 5 July 2018

League of Gentlemen Wargamers SYW

Last month Mark D. and I wended our way up to Merry Old Scotland to do battle with the League of Gentleman Wargamers. The theme for the weekend was, apart from drinking, eating and general merrymaking, the Seven Years War.

The multi-table campaign scenario was devised and umpired by Charles Grant. With some amendments, the rules were The Wargame by Charles Grant senior. These, I'm reliably informed, are not 'Old School' rules; they are 'Traditional'. The game was brilliantly organised by Charles and everything went very smoothly.

The game, involving a dozen players and several thousand figures. It lasted from first thing Saturday morning until pack up on Sunday. 

My mission, with my dutiful subordinate Peter N., was to march my Russians westward to aid my allies (Prussians and British / Hannovarians) against the combined might of the French, Austrian and Reichsarmee. My efforts were intolerably delayed by the interventions made by the French under Kevin C. and John D., and I failed miserably.

Can't wait for the next LOGW meeting - it's 1066 and all that!

Special thanks to Steve R. for putting Mark and I up for the weekend. Also to John D. who walked us through the rules, and acted as 'factor totter' at our end of the room for the entire weekend.

Anyway, some shots of the action on the various tables.



















Ilipa 206 BC - Battle Report

On Wednesday evening, the Ilkley Lads game night, we took are first crack at Ilipa 206 BC using To the Strongest! rules. The battle was good fun and went to the wire. 

Accompanying this post are some photos of the game in progress.
Peter, having drawn lots of good chits is looking very happy with himself - this might have been the point at which Mark said "Give him a dice."
Last night's set up worked O.K. but it could be improved upon. To that effect, I have edited the Ilipa 206 BC scenario I posted on Tuesday with all of the changes. I'll quickly point them out here.
Peter's troops on the attack!
I've decided to use the rule for triplex acies exactly as written in the 3rd edition of the Punic Wars army lists. This has extended the Roman line to conform with the length of the Carthaginian line and should give the Romans a little more flexibility and oomph on the flanks. Having read this rule again I think it will work extremely well for this battle; it puts the cavalry in a better position to carry out it's flanking moves; the army number ratios are not substantially changed (the Roman army is just 2 VPs stronger). 
It's all about to get messy in the centre.
Initially I had thought to give the Roman cavalry a save on 6+. Just prior to last night's battle I changed this to a save on 7+ with a +1 bonus when in melee with Carthaginian cavalry. This worked better, and it better reflected the morale ascendancy the Roman cavalry had over its Carthaginian counterparts.

I cocked up the ammunition for Spanish scutarii - they should only have one ammunition chit for ranged melee weapon (Soliferrum / Spanish - Saunion). There is a change I'm going to make to the basic rules regarding shock missiles (see advanced rules). In my Punic Wars games, I will play that where two units oppose each other with shock missiles, Roman legionaries and Alae legionaries will always throw first. My reasoning is this: the risk of being disordered when charging will dampen a Roman player's willingness to be 'aggressively Roman', and Roman legions and their alae legions are 'trained regulars'.
In you go, boys! Note the Spanish with the wrong kind of ammunition chit markers. The beads should be red and in the singular. I don't allow ranged melee weapons (pilum, siliferrum, etc.) to be used in a 'general missilery' role.
I am fully aware of the limitations of pachyderms in war and I think Simon Miller must be too. Personally though, I like elephants to be a little more useful than they probably were historically - purely on the grounds that they look too cool to be that bad. To liven them up, my elephants will be able to make a double attack twice. I'm also going to allow for a save on 7+ versus rampage - historically, when an elephant went berserk its mahout dealt with it by hammering a chisel into its skull, and mahouts were all so equipped for just that purpose - and if the save is made no rampage will take place. I will maintain my own house rule on square occupation for elephants as my squares are large enough to accommodate them and it doesn't really effect game play. Otherwise they are unchanged.

I have changed the effect of Scipio's element surprise. The change is minor, but I thought that the Carthaginians got off the blocks a little to easily last night.

Some rules for To The Strongest! are not in the rule book. These can be downloaded from the To The Strongest site as the free download "Even Stronger". We used at least two of the rules last night. The first is that for command group moves, the second is the replacement rule for command group demoralisation. I have to say that the latter rule is very much better than the rule it replaces and I'm using it from now on.
The Romans, about to lose two units in quick succession - game over!
As it was, the Carthaginians took the laurels with some flukey saves and hits right at the end - in the penultimate Carthaginian turn I made six consecutive saves and in the last Carthaginian turn Peter made several consecutive hits, virtually none of which were saved. The game finished with the Carthaginians having just 5 VPs left, it could so easily have gone the other way.

Next week we will re-fight it again, swapping sides, with the Romans under Peter J. and myself and the Carthaginians under Graham H. and Mark D. We will also swap over the table opponents.

Wednesday, 4 July 2018

New Flight Stands for Jump or Burn

Those who have known me for a while will know that I have a passing interest in World War One aerial combat games. 

Several years ago, actually back in 2003, I wrote a card based set of rules called Jump or Burn for playing dogfight games set during the Great War. 

They were published by Piquet Inc. and boast cover art by Jack Hunter - the same Jack Hunter who wrote The Blue Max, later made into the film starring George Peppard as the brash young German pilot and Ursula Andress as the love interest. 

It still has some great dogfight scenes, bedroom scenes less so.










Anyway, the game involves planes on sticks where the attitude of the aircraft, climbing, diving and banking need to be indicated. 

Back then, the only solution I could come up with for a small universal joint on which to mount the aircraft involved cutting up electrical junction boxes (called chocolate boxes in the trade, I believe). These worked well enough but were a pain to make and required tightening with a screwdriver from time to time. 

The flight stand also needed a way to display altitude, so I used a D20 held on the stand with a curtain ring. 

The base of the stand was a jam jar lid weighted with white metal that I melted down in an old pan and poured in. 

The picture on the left shows one of these fascinating contraptions.


A few weeks ago I came across an ebay lot whilst searching for X-Wing miniatures. It was for 'universal joint' rotation magnets. I liked the look of the lot but thought the price to redo all my planes would be quite steep. 

So I searched for related items and low and behold, like so many things, what I had been looking at wasn't a specialised item. It wasn't a 'rotation magnet set'. It was, in fact, a countersunk rare earth magnet most commonly used for a door catch and a ball bearing. 

So I ordered a bunch of 10 mm x 3 mm countersunk door catches and a bag of 8 mm ball bearing 'catapult ammunition'. By fixing ball bearings to the aircraft and the magnets to flight stands (the reverse of the advertised method) I could save a packet. Rather than spend £30 or so on blister packed 'rotation magnet sets' I got everything I needed for £5.50. 


Having sourced my universal joints, I looked around for poles, bases and machine gun arc indicators. 

The first two were easy. I had some 3/16 " Aluminium tubing kicking about the place for the poles. The lead filled jam jar lid bases worked a treat, being cheap, weighty and tidy, so no change there. 

Machine gun arc indicator discs I could make using MS paint. 

I had to think about the altitude indicators.

What I needed for an altitude indicator was some kind of clock, a dial, just like the 1 - 12 casualty marker made by War bases but numbered 1 - 20. 

I sent Martin and team at War Bases an email. A week later my custom made dials arrived. 

I'm not going to tell you how much Martin charged me, but frankly I was amazed at how cheaply he was able to do them.

Thank you, War Bases - to the rescue, yet again.

With all the bits in place, I started construction. This really amounted to very little work.

I filled the lids with lead then sprayed them black. 

I glued the dials together, including the thin card machine gun / tailing arc indicator discs, then painted them with enamel paint for durability. 

Then I drilled the dial for the aluminium pole and stuck everything together. 

The first magnet on the stand was then stuck on top of the stand with Araldite with a flat headed nail (down the tube). A second magnet, for extra pulling power, was then dropped on top - no glue required.


To attach the ball bearings to the planes I drilled a small 'countersink' in the bottom of the fusalage of each aircraft before gluing the ball bearing in place. 

There was one slight hitch that I had foreseen but hoped in vain against. There is very little friction between the balls and magnets and consequently, although the magents are strong enough to hold an aircraft without risk of it falling off, the ball moves so freely in the countersunk 'cup' that the planes flop about all over the place. 


I got out my trusty modelling drill. I used a 'diamond' covered grinding tool on the inside top edge of the countersunk magnets, and a grinding wheel on the ball bearings. 

The rougher surfaces work superbly well. The planes 'rotate' with the push of a finger, halt exactly at the desired attitude, and hold there. 

The only thing you have to be wary of, is accidentally rotating the aircraft in the horizontal plane so the the aircraft looks to be flying in the wrong direction, vis a vis the machine gun arc indicator on the base.

Here's a pic of one of my white metal planes (1:144 scale Red Eagle range formerly sold by Skytrex) with a nicely banked attitude, flying at altitude 10. 

I hope someone finds this useful. I really like this new solution to an old problem. At some point I'll revamp the rules.


Tuesday, 3 July 2018

The Battle of Ilipa 206 BC, using To The Strongest rules

Following a run through of this battle this post has been updated with several text edits and new photographs.

This week, at Peter J's request, I've set up a battle from the 2nd Punic War. Our first thought was to do a game using Hail Caesar but, because I don't have the army lists done, because I don't really know the rules (it would be a first battle using Hail Caesar), because I only have the PDF of the rules (which Warlord were offering for free a while ago), and because Mark D. wants to try a game of To The Strongest (rules the rest of us are familiar with), I've decided to set up the Battle of Ilipa 206 BC on the T.T.S. grid.

I haven't done this battle before, I can't think why, so it's probably worth me writing up the following blurb for the players as a pre-game briefing. 
Note that this picture shows the table with the drop leaf extension (foreground) down. On game night it will be raised for two extra flank squares.
I have edited the text for the following picture but the other photos were taken before this change was made. Given the Romans should (will !) attack I think giving more room behind the Carthaginian line will work much better.
A much better deployment providing the Romans attack - I'm planning this to be a demo game this year where they will!
Historical Background

In 211 BC the Romans in Spain suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Hasdrubal Barca, Mago and Gisgo. The disaster was compounded by the deaths of two of the Roman commanders, Cnaeus and Publius Scipio. 

The remnants of the Roman army, under it's soldier elected leader Marcius Lucius managed to cling onto a small enclave north of the Ebro until reinforced by fresh troops, and a new commanding officer named Nero, that sailed in from Italy. 

Nero did much to improve the situation and by the Spring of 210 BC he was aggressively expanding Roman territory south of the Ebro.
Crusader Miniatures elephants. These have had some significant alterations to what comes in the post. Extra 'neck' has been added to raise the elephants head, padding has been added to the bottom of the howdahs, and various chains, tassles, shields and other adornments have been modelled onto them. The howdah crew are Renegade Miniatures.
At the end 210 BC Nero returned to Rome. He was replaced by one of the most gifted generals of antiquity - Publius Cornelius Scipio, later called Scipio Africanus - who arrived in Spain with further reinforcements. He was the nephew of the former commander, killed in Spain in 211 BC.

In 209 BC Scipio took the Barca's Spanish capital of New Carthage, and followed this major achievement by defeating Hasdrubal Barca at the Battle of Baecula in 208 BC. 

This victory cemented Scipio's reputation with his soldiers - they were well trained veterans, well led and confident.

207 BC saw the Romans under Scipio consolidating their gains, especially over the rich silver mines in the Baecula region. The Carthaginian counterattack under Hasdrubal Barca fizzled out before it achieved anything and the Carthaginian army went onto the defensive by dispersing into surrounding cities. 


Spanish and Numidian cavalry. The Spanish are Renegade. The Numidians are a mixture of Crusader (front) and  another manufacturer (rear).
In 206 BC the Carthaginians decided to make a major effort against Scipio; they concentrated a large army under a new commander in chief called Hasdrubal Gisgo; this army would swamp and crush the lucky, until now, Roman. 

The army is variously described as somewhere between 50,000 and 70, 000 foot, between 4,000 and 4,500 horse and thirty-two elephants. (Polybius gives smaller numbers than Livy).

Hasdrubal established his camp on top of a ridge near a town called Ilipa (probably in the modern region of Seville) from where he could taunt the Romans into action.

Scipio called in his various detachments and newly won Spanish allies. His army, roughly half Italian and half Spanish, amounted to 45,000 foot and 3,000 horse. He marched towards Ilipa and his willing enemy. Here, on a ridge on the opposite side of a wide flat bottomed valley, Scipio established his camp. 


Romani and Latini equites backed by velites.
Following a clash of cavalry as Scipio's army approached, which the Romans got the better of, things calmed down to a daily routine. 

Each morning, both armies would march out of their camp and form up in the plain between the ridges. Both sides formed up in a conventional fashion. 

The Carthaginians formed up with their African infantry in the centre flanked by Spanish troops supported by elephants, with wings of cavalry. The Romans deployed with their legions and alae in the centre flanked by their Spanish allies with cavalry on the wings. 

Neither side would attack, and after the usual taunts and challenges that accompanied such displays of force, both armies marched back to their respective camps for the night. Every day the routine was the same until.....
Rome's Spanish allies with attached Spanish general.
Scipio decided to wrong foot his enemy, and following a council of war where his orders for the upcoming battle were given and explained to his subordinates, the Roman army marched out of camp. 

The Carthaginians formed up as usual. The Romans formed up differently. 

On this morning, Scipio deployed his Spanish infantry in the centre flanked by a legion with its alae of Latins, whilst on the wings the cavalry deployed supported by the army's velites.
Roman and Allied triplex acies formations - more anon.
Scipio's plan of attack was sophisticated. His Spanish troops would advance and pin the Carthaginian centre in place without coming to hand strokes. The Romans and Italians would attack the Carthaginian's Spanish troops and cavalry whilst the Roman cavalry and velites manoeuvred around the enemy flanks. 

Scipio hoped that, having thrown the Carthaginian battle plan into confusion by his novel deployment, his troops might get into their final attack positions before the enemy could respond effectively. His judgement was correct and his victory was an emphatic one.

The Game

The game has been set up on a 16 x 7 grid. No man's land is three squares. 


Because my units are quite large I decided to have my table marked up with 10 inch squares; this means my six feet wide table is only seven squares deep, not the prescribed eight; according to Simon Miller a three square deep no man's land, rather than four square deep no man's land, is quite sufficient for 'infantry' battles and I tend to agree.

The grid has been marked with green dots. They are easily seen when looking for them but they are unnoticeable when you aren't. A grid of bold lines is not required.

The Romans
The Roman battle line.
The army has four 'heroes' and four spare ammunition chits. The army's breaking point is 14 VPs. The C-in-C, Publius Cornelius Scipio, is a senior brilliant general; he can be deployed anywhere in or behind the Roman battle line prior to battle.

The Romans are deployed with a first square front line and two clear squares to either flank. From left to right, they are deployed in the following order of battle (colours denote separate commands). 

  • Romani / Latini equites backed by velites, + general.
  • Romani / Latini equites backed by velites.
  • Alae triplex acies Hastati / Principes unit backed by a small triarii unit.
  • Roman triplex acies Hastati / Principes unit backed by a small triarii unit, + heroic general.
  • Spanish scutarii (deep unit).
  • Spanish scutarii (deep unit), + attached general.
  • Spanish scutarii (deep unit).
  • Spanish scutarii (deep unit).
  • Roman triplex acies Hastati / Principes unit backed by triarii, + heroic general.
  • Alae triplex acies Hastati / Principes unit backed by triarii.
  • Romani / Latini equites backed by velites.
  • Romani / Latini equites backed by velites, + general.
Publius Cornelius Scipio (senior and brilliant).
Rather than use individual figures to represent heroes, I use spare shields mounted on two penny pieces.
The yellow beads are reserve ammunition chits. The poker chips are army break point VP chits.

Scipio (senior and brilliant) can be deployed anywhere in the Roman battle line. The army has four heroes and four spare ammunition chits. The army's breaking point is 14 VPs.

Rather than use individual figures to represent heroes, I use spare shields mounted on two penny pieces.

The Carthaginians
The Carthaginian battle line.
The army has three heroes and six spare ammunition chits. The army's breaking point is 18 VPs. The C-in-C, Hasdrubal Gisgo, is a senior heroic general; he can be deployed anywhere in or behind the Carthaginian battle line prior to battle.

The Carthaginians are deployed, with a third square front line and two clear squares to either flank, from left to right, in the following order of battle. 

  • Numidian cavalry backed by Numidian cavalry.
  • Spanish cavalry backed by Spanish cavalry, + general.
  • Escorted African elephants backed by Spanish scutarii (deep unit).
  • Escorted African elephants backed by Spanish scutarii (deep unit), + attached general.
  • Spanish catrati backed by African spearmen (deep unit).
  • Balearic slingers backed by African spearmen (deep unit).
  • Balearic slingers backed by African spearmen (deep unit), + attached general.
  • Spanish catrati backed by African spearmen (deep unit).
  • Escorted African elephants backed by a Spanish scutarii (deep unit).
  • Escorted African elephants backed by a Spanish scutarii (deep unit), + attached general.
  • Spanish cavalry backed by Spanish cavalry, + heroic general (Massinissa).
  • Numidian cavalry backed by Numidian cavalry.

Hasdrubal  Gisgo (senior and heroic). 
In the game, ammunition chits are displayed with black pony beads on a 'spike'. Spare ammunition chits are yellow. This is so I don't confuse my piles of spare and spent - everyone else doesn't seem to have a problem with beads of the same colour but I do, and I usually end up with more spare chits than I started with; hopefully this simple two colour approach will help.
Notes on Troops

  I will use the standard rules, with one exception (see elephants), but I'll play around with the definitions for some troops.

  • All equites save on 7+ and have 1 ammunition chit. Due to their morale ascendancy over the Carthaginian cavalry, gained when the armies first met, in melee they get a +1 save Vs Carthaginian horse.
  • Velites save on 7+ and have 3 ammunition chits.
  • Hastati / Principes save on 6+ / 5+ (see special rules below) and have one ranged melee ammunition chit; they are drilled legionaries.
  • Triarii save on 5+; they are drilled legionaries.
  • All Spanish scutarii are deep shock javelimen units, save on 7+ and have one ranged melee ammunition chit.
  • Spanish cavalry save on 7+ and have 1 ammunition chit.
  • Numidian cavalry save on 7+ and have 3 ammunition chits. 
  • All Carthaginian skirmishers save on 7+ and have 3 ammunition chits.
  • African spearmen are deep units and they save on 6+. 
  • Escorted elephants save on 7+ and have 3 ammunition chits (see special rules below). 
Special Rules
Nothing ever changes. African spearsmen, tharsand's of  'em.
Scipio's surprise tactics: 
Scipio's surprise deployment threw the Carthaginians off balance and they were unable to respond to Scipio's plan. To allow Scipio an advantage in the early stages of the battle, the Carthaginians require five better than normal to activate in turn one and three better than normal to activate in turn two. This penalty only effects activation for movement, including cavalry charges into a second square; it has no effect on activation to shoot, or to charge into adjacent squares. On turn three all Carthaginian troops activate as normal. The Romans initiated the battle, so they go first.


Roman Triplex acies formation. Note that the front two 'units' count as one regular sized unit. This allows three units in one square - nice!
Triplex Acies:
We will use the TtS rule as per the 3rd edition of the Polybian Roman army list which I quote, word for word, here: 

"Roman line relief. 

The successive lines of the Polybian legion had a unique (but unknown) mechanism which permitted them to fall back through or past the unit behind them. I have therefore combined pairs of hastati and principes small units to form a single regular-sized unit with some special properties, which usually shares a box with a small triarii unit positioned behind it.
This legionary special unit is best represented by two single lines of hastati and principes with a gap in between them or, alternatively, with a pair of small units of hastati and principes. In either case the hastati start in front.
This unit has a save of 6+ whilst the hastati are in front.  Once per unit per game, when the unit is disordered, a player can conduct a "line exchange" representing the legion's hastati retiring though its principes. This special rally activation replaces the unit's pila (if already expended), improves its save from 6+ to 5+ and, if the unit is disordered, permits a rally save without the penalties for enemy units capable of charging it. Note that it is entirely possible for the rally activation to be successful, putting the principes in front with their improved save, but the subsequent rally save to fail, leaving the unit disordered. The line exchange is represented by moving the principes minis in front of the hastati minis, whence they will remain for the rest of the battle.
The legionaries special unit can also use a normal move activation to exchange places with a unit of triarii unit in the same box when within an enemy zone of control (line exchange within a ZOC isn't otherwise permitted)."
Carthaginian elephants. The one on the right is an adamant elephant - for those into their early 80's pseudo punk rock stars.
Elephants:
Escorted elephants count as deep (2 hit) units but they can share a square with one other unit of any size; they must otherwise follow all the rules for deep units (my very deep squares allow me to do this and it keeps the battle lines tidier). They will gain a the +2 save bonus versus Roman cavalry. Twice in the game, elephants can make can make two melee attacks instead of one; they can do this following activation to charge, or when striking back. 

Sources

From my Punic Wars books I used the following books as the main sources for reconstructing this battle.

The Fall of Carthage - Adrian Goldsworthy. ISBN 0-304-36642-0 
Scipio Africanus, Romes Greatest General - Richard A. Gabriel. ISBN 978-1-59797-205-5

Saturday, 26 May 2018

Anyone for a threesome? The Isle of the Three Duchies Campaign - some progress

Some time ago, 2016 at a guess, but I can't find the post, I posted this map. The Isle of the Three Duchies over which I planned to fight an 'Imagi-Nation' three player SYW Campaign. 

My interest was sparked by a very successful run through of 'Bohemian Blitzkrieg' campaign detailed in Battles and Campaigns from the Age of Reason, and Warfare in the Age of Reason by Kershner and Wood. Although we didn't use the table-top rules, the campaign rules worked a treat. 

I started putting things together, then I ran out of steam.


The other night I was looking at how far I'd got with the rules for Isle of the Three Duchy's and was pleasantly surprised to find they were not that far off at all, and not having reviewed them for a couple of years, I thought they looked quite good.

There are four of us getting together on most Wednesdays now, so an umpired threesome - someone has to take the photos of such activities - is entirely possible. Obviously I'll have to tie one or two of the players down but, anyway.

I've spent a couple of hours tying one or two loose threads together and think I've probably got enough done, rule wise, for us to get going. I've found, in the past, that when it comes to campaigns, a bit of ambiguity in the rules is generally a good thing. Campaign rules are a notoriously tricky business to get right because there are often so many things going on that it's better to make things up as you go along. There is generally only one proviso: Once a rule has been made it will be the same for everyone for the rest of the campaign unless everyone agrees that the rule was rubbish and it must be changed. 

So, here they are. The rules for The Isle of the Three Duchies Campaign. They were written for use with classic Piquet (our version of those rules) so if you want to do something else with them it might take a bit of work.


Isle of the Three Duchies Campaign

INTRODUCTION

HOW TO WIN
Each campaign turn represents two weeks of activity. The campaign season lasts from the beginning of March until mid-October. Regardless of the position and strategic situation the campaign ends at the end of turn sixteen, at that time the weather will have deteriorated to such an extent that entering winter quarters will become necessary for all combatants.

The aim of the campaign is to amass victory points (VPs) during the campaign season. At the end of turn 16 the campaign will end and the victory point total of each duchy will be totalled. The player with the most is the victor. The duchy with the second highest score can argue about his position in life, but he lost.

  • A duchy is awarded 1 VP for each enemy strength point (SP) it eliminates in battle.
  • A duchy is awarded 1 VP for the seniority value (10 highest to 1 lowest) of any general that it kills or captures (regardless of his quality). A bonus 5 VPs is added if the casualty is a duke.
  • A duchy loses 1 VP for each SP lost due to lack of supply.
  • Duchies receive points for control of map dots. To control a dot the owning player must either occupy the dot or be the last player to have occupied it with a supplied force. Fortress dots cannot be taken without a successful siege.
  • Each town and fortress dot has its VP value printed at its centre.
  • Each captured fortress is worth an additional three D6 VPs at the end of the campaign.
  •  Each captured scientific centre is worth an additional D6 VPs at the end of the campaign.
  • A duchy is awarded 1 VP for every unbesieged SPs it has in its army at the end of the campaign.
  • A duchy is awarded 1 VP for every POW it holds at the end of the campaign.
  • A duchy is awarded 1 VP for every 3 casualties recovering in hospital at the end of the campaign.
  • At the end of the campaign a Duchy will receive VP for completing the Duchy’s secret missions.


INITIAL SET UP

SECRET MISSIONS
Each Duchy starts the game with two secret mission cards, dealt at random, from the Secret Mission Deck (twelve cards). These cards each have three named locations on them, one location in each Duchy. 

Success in having secured all the locations, and being in possession of them at the end of the campaign will add 25 VPs, plus another 25 VPs if one is an enemy fortress, to the duchy’s total. 

Failure to secure all three will result in a deduction of 15 VPs for each location that is unsecured.

Note that the mission cards are not designed to be equally difficult to achieve. Some will be easier than others.



GENERALS
Each duchy starts the campaign with its warrior duke and 9 other generals capable of independent command. The duke and his generals should be named.

 All generals have two values:
·        Seniority: numbered 1 through 10, with the duke as 10. Where two generals are with the same army  the most senior is always the commander-in-chief. Where more than one general is fielded in a battle the higher in seniority must lead a command group. Seniority is decided before initiative.
·         
       Initiative: Numbered 2 through 5 and determined for each general by rolling D3+1. Initiative is used   throughout the campaign for movement and pre-battle manoeuvring. Initiative value is also used as   a  modifier for C-in-C battlefield quality rolls.
Initiative
C-in-C quality roll modifier
2
-2
3
NC
4
+2

Each army requires a general to move and fight. A field army finding itself without a general will have the nearest ‘spare’ general, delivered to it in phase 5 of the turn sequence regardless of lines of communication. A besieged garrison without a general may have the nearest ‘spare’ general delivered to it in phase 5 of the turn sequence regardless of lines of communication. Extra generals may be delivered to an army in phase 5 of the turn sequence regardless of lines of communication. If no spare general exists, the leaderless army will not be able to move and will always seek to retreat pre-battle.

Whenever a general is killed or captured he will be immediately replaced by a new one. The newest general is always the lowest in seniority. New generals must start in a fortress, unless none exist when any friendly dot will do. In effect, the duchy always has a duke and 9 generals. Where a general is repatriated after capture he cannot be reintroduced (at his old seniority) until a space is made for him, at which point those below his old seniority are bumped down.

ARMIES AND STRENGTH POINTS (SPS)
SPs are used to give a strategic numerical value to the armies moving around the map. SPs are used to buy units when an army comes to fight a field battle; the actual breakdown of unit types comprising an army can be found in the army lists.
  •          Line infantry units cost 4 SPs
  •          Line cavalry and heavy artillery units cost 3 SPs
  •          Field artillery, light infantry and irregular light cavalry units cost 2 SPs.

SPs with a general are an army. Though armies may comprise as many SPs as a player wishes, no army may field more than 100 SPs in a battle. No army, outside of a fortress, can be voluntarily created with less than 15 SPs; armies with less always take priority for compulsory reinforcement to reach 15 SPs. No more than ten field armies can be created by a Duchy.

Each Duchy starts the campaign with a combined army of 200 Strength Points (SPs) of troops. The duke, his generals and all SPs must start the campaign in a fortress dot. No fortress can initially be without a general or SPs.

FORTRESSES
Fortresses are the only dots in which any number of SPs may be held, as a garrison, without a general.

 All fortresses are supply depots for their duchy.

Two fortresses are recruitment depots – these are marked with ‘bomb’ symbols.

Full scale formal sieges will not be war gamed as table actions in this campaign.
  •  If an enemy army presents itself in a fortress dot a garrison with a general may offer battle, with the option to retreat into the fortress if he loses, or immediately retreat into the fortress and count as besieged. Garrisons without a general always retreat into the fortress.
  • Besieged garrisons without a general are pinned and may not move or offer battle.
  • If the garrison has a general it may be ordered to come out of a fortress to offers battle and, if it loses, it may retreat back into the fortress.
  • If a relieving force and a besieged force link up to offer battle all or part of the combined force may retreat to the fortress if they lose.

·        A fortress cannot be taken if a besieging army does not exceed 60 SP and the garrison by more than 5:1. If the besieging army meets this requirement in phase 4 of the turn sequence roll 1 D6, and if the result is a ‘six’ the garrison will surrender.
·         
       If one side has the other bottled up in a fortress the dot may only be used a supply depot for the garrison, but the besieger may trace lines of supply through the fortress dot to supply depots further afield.
·       
          Sieges are automatically broken at the end of the campaign season.

If a fortress is captured it becomes a supply depot for the occupying duchy and any SPs therein become POW and are immediately transferred to the appropriate POW camp.

SUPPLY
To be in supply a force must have a clear line of supply, free of the presence of enemy SPs or enemy controlled dots, that leads to a supply depot.

Unless an army is in a fortress (always in supply) supply status is determined in phase 8 of the turn sequence and lasts until phase 9 of the next turn.

If an army is out of supply it immediately rolls D6 for each 6 SPs or part of: each ‘six’ rolled causes 1 SP attrition. On the third consecutive turn out of supply and thereafter the army will start to roll D6 per 3 SPs or part of: each ‘six’ rolled causes 1 SP attrition.

An unsupplied force can only move one dot per turn and may not undertake a forced march.

Lack of supply has no effect on combat effectiveness for one battle. If the army fights a second battle before regaining supply, all units apply a -5 modifier to their D20 battle quality rolls. 

RECRUITMENT DEPOTS
Two SPs of reinforcements will appear in each recruitment depot in phase 8 of the turn sequence.

Convalesced SPs (see hospitals below), plus any repatriated POW SPs (see POW camps below) will appear at training depots (random chance which) in phase 8 of the turn sequence.

Providing a line of supply can be traced to the fortress, reinforcements can be ordered to be dispatched to armies in phase 1 of the turn. These orders precede all others for the turn.

If a recruitment depot is taken by the enemy it will cease to produce reinforcement SPs until recaptured. When a training depot is captured any SPs therein become POW and are immediately transferred to the appropriate POW camp.

SCIENTIFIC CENTRES AND CHARACTERISATION CARDS
At the start of the campaign each player will be dealt ten cards from the Campaign Characterisation Deck. The effects of these cards (see appendix 1) can be applied immediately.

After the initial cards have been dealt the only way of obtaining more is to take control of enemy scientific centre dots. Each duchy has six centres and these are marked on the map with a rose symbol. When an enemy centre is taken two cards are dealt to the new controlling player. If the player has already reach the maximum effect of the technology the effect cannot be applied – the technology is old. New cards take effect in phase 6 of the turn sequence.

Once a scientific centre has been taken it no longer counts as one for the remainder of the campaigning season. Scientific centres cannot be moved.

THE CAMPAIGN CHARATERISATION DECK
CARD
TYPE
DEFINITION

2 - 4
Line and Grenadier Training
Add 1 to unit quality rolls (+4 max).
5
Line and Grenadier Training
Add 2 to unit quality rolls (+4 max).
6
Militia Training
Add 1 to unit quality rolls (+2 max).
7
Guard
1 unit of line infantry (in an army of 40 + SPs) may be upgraded to guard
8 - 9
Advanced Drill
Unit may move at full rate when moving obliquely and deploy forward without an Other Difficulty check.
10 - J
Cadenced Marching
Add Infantry Move in the Open card (1 max)
Q - K
Improved Musket Drill
Add Musket Reload card (1 max).
A
Wild Card
Any spade.
2 - 3
Line Cavalry Training
Add 1 to unit quality rolls (+4 max).
4
Line Cavalry Training
Add 2 to unit quality rolls (+4 max).
5
Guard Line Cavalry
1 unit of heavy cavalry (in an army of 40 + SPs) may be upgraded to guard – Up 2 Morale,
Up 2 Melee.
6
Elite Dragoons
Morale Up 1, Up 1 Melee.
7
Elite Hussars
Morale Up 1, Up 1 Melee.
8
Elite Cuirassier
Morale Up 1.
9
Shock Hussars
Hussars may melee on
Shock Cavalry Resolution cards.
10 - J
Advanced Drill
Add Cavalry Move in the Open card (1 max).
Q - K
Superior Shock Cavalry
Add one Shock Cavalry Melee Resolution card
(1 max).
A
Wild Card
Any club.
2
Irregular & light  Training
Add 1 to the unit quality rolls (+4 max).
3
4
Irregular Troops Training
Elite Light Infantry
Add 2 to the unit quality rolls (+4 max).
Elite Light infantry.
5 - 7
Integral Sappers
One unit of line infantry (in an army of 40 + SPs) may be converted to sappers with bridging equipment and explosives. Otherwise, sappers with bridging equipment cost 5 VP.
8 - 9
Artillery Training
Add 1 to unit quality rolls (+4 max).
10
Artillery Training
Add 2 to unit quality rolls (+4 max).
J
Siege Artillery
One battery of heavy guns (in an army of 40 + SPs) may be converted to siege guns.
Q - K
Horse Artillery
One battery of field artillery (in an army of 40 + SPs) may be converted to horse artillery.
A
Wild Card
Any diamond.
2 - 4
Research Breakthrough
Draw two cards
5
Superior Hospitals
SPs convalesce on ‘five’ or ‘six’.
6
Superior Recruitment Depot
One recruitment depot will recruit 3 SP per turn.
7
Specialisation
Increase the proportion of one specific troop type in the Duchy’s armies by 0 - 10%.
8 - 9
Superior Staff College
Add 1 to officer quality rolls (+4 max).
10
Superior Staff College
Add 2 to officer quality rolls (+4 max).
J
Superior Staff College
Add Heroic Moment card (1 max).
Q - K
Superior Staff College
Add Officer Check card (1 max).
A
Wild Card
Any heart.
JOKER
Any card of any suit.

HOSPITAL DOTS
Each duchy has one hospital. The hospital is marked on the map with a cross symbol. 

The winner of a battle sends 1 in 3 (rounding up all fractions) of his casualty SPs directly to the hospital regardless of lines of communication.  The loser of a battle sends 1 in 5 (rounding up all fractions) of his casualty SPs directly to the hospital regardless of lines of communication. 

Casualties in hospital convalesce in phase 8 of the turn sequence. To recover a D6 is rolled for each SP in the hospital: a recovery is indicated for each 6 rolled. Recovered SPs are immediately and directly transferred to a random friendly recruitment depot that is not under siege.

A hospital can be voluntarily relocated for the cost of 10 VPs. If taken by the enemy, a new hospital can be immediately set up elsewhere at a cost of 5 VPs; all convalescing SPs in a captured hospital become prisoners of war and will be immediately transferred to the appropriate POW camp.

PRISONER OF WAR (POW) CAMPS
Each duchy has two prisoner of war camps, one for the captured SPs of each enemy duchy. POW camps are marked on the map with a skull and crossbones symbol in the colour of each enemy duchy.

Following a battle, win or lose, 1 in 5 (rounding up all fractions) of all enemy casualty SPs are taken prisoner. There is also a 25% chance that any general that becomes a casualty is actually captured rather than wounded. 

All POW are immediately and directly transferred to the appropriately coloured POW camp. Here they will spend the remainder of the campaigning season unless exchanged in POW swaps or released through enemy action.

If a POW camp is captured any friendly SPs are immediately diced for by rolling 1 D6 for each SP. For each ’four’,  ‘five’ or ‘six’ rolled one SP is directly transferred to the nearest training depot in phase 8 of the turn sequence, the others are simply released.

If the POW SPs belong to another duchy they are immediately and directly transferred to the player’s appropriate POW camp. If taken by the enemy, a new POW camp must be immediately set up elsewhere. New POW camps cost 5 VPs. A POW camp can be voluntarily relocated for the cost of 10 VPs.

SEQUENCE OF PLAY
1.       Order phase: Players send (by email) their move orders for the turn. The Umpire will randomly decide in which order the Duchies are activated.
2.       The activation and movement phase: All armies will dice for activation and carry out their orders. The umpire will make rolls for army activation.
3.       Pre-battle manoeuvres, retreats before battle, battle, retreats post battle.
4.       Resolve sieges.
5.       Any new generals are delivered to armies without one.
6.       Any newly acquired campaign army characterisation cards are activated.
7.       Re-locate hospitals and POW camps.
8.       Newly recruited SPs, and convalesced casualty (from hospital) SPs are delivered to recruitment depots. The umpire will make rolls for convalescence.
9.       Assess lines of supply. The umpire will make rolls for attrition.

TURN PHASES
PHASE 1: ORDERS
Each turn begins with the emailing of Duchy orders to me (the umpire). The orders should include all the actions the player wishes his Duchy to undertake during the turn. Orders must be clear and unconditional – ordering general #8 to march if general #9 has completed his orders is not allowed.

Duchy orders should include:
The number of reinforcement SPs that are to be dispatched from recruitment depots. The destination of the reinforcement SPs. Priority must go to field armies under 15 SPs strong. Reinforcements will always arrive providing the orders are clear and correct (see p.3).

Notification of the breakup of an existing army into two or more smaller armies. The strength of each army and who commands it, including any sub generals, must be noted. This process will be automatic (line of communication permitting) and does not require activation.

Although movement requires activation rolls (rolls will be made by the umpire) movement orders, including the starting position, route, and destination should be given for each army the player desires should move.

Finally, orders for the change of location for hospitals and POW camps should be stated.

After the orders from the duchies are received the Umpire will randomly decide in which order the duchies will activate. Note that the dispatch of reinforcements will always happen.

If the general fails to activate (see movement) his orders are voided. The orders he failed to carry out will not be relayed to the other Duchies. Note that strategic intentions, other than for immediate movement, are never required.

Note that, on the turn following a battle armies will not accept movement orders. They must remain stationary for that turn.



Example of orders:
  •         Reinforce army at Khol with 2 SP from recruitment there and 4 SP from recruitment and convalesced at Keisinger.
  •          Generals 10, 9 and 4 with 58 SP (52 + 6) at Kohl: Split army in two. Generals 10 and 4 with 40 SP march via Groningen to Noname, General 9 with 18 SP march to Sitzens.
  •          Move hospital from Gargelingen to Ulzenstadt – cost 10 VP.


PHASE 2: ACTIVATION AND MOVEMENT
Before an army can move it must be activated. To activate an army its senior general rolls one D6 and adds his initiative value. If the result is six or more the army is activated and it will move as its orders require, or as far as it can.

Armies starting in the same dot as an enemy army cannot move into enemy controlled dots. Armies cannot move through enemy armies in neighbouring dots. Armies that are prevented from moving by enemy armies that subsequently refuse battle by retreating will make a one dot movement in compliance to their orders or hold position.

The maximum distance that a supplied army can move, counting each dot moved into in one turn, is two dots. The exception is for armies that are ordered to undertake a ‘Forced March’: These can move three dots in one turn but may suffer attrition - Roll one D6 for every 10 SP in the army (rounding up all fractions) and suffer 1 SP attrition for each ‘six’ rolled.

An army that retreated last turn deducts one dot from its maximum movement.

An army that is out of supply can move one dot.

On the turn following a battle an army cannot move.

An army moving to an enemy fortress dot or any river crossing dot will end its turn in that dot.

If two or more friendly armies occupy a single dot at the end of the move phase they must combine into a single force commanded by the most senior general present.

Enemy armies ending phase 4 in the same dot have contacted and must go through the pre-battle manoeuvre phase.

As a supplied army moves it takes control of the dots it passes through. The exception to this is where an army makes a retreat move, when control of the dot will not change.

PHASE 3: PRE-BATTLE MANOEUVRES
The pre-battle manoeuvre phase must be completed for all contacts (enemy armies in the same dot) before any ensuing battles are fought. The exception is where three enemy armies are in the same dot, the first two armies that were in the dot resolve their engagement first, then if one remains (possibly after a battle) the second engagement is resolved. Three armies can never fight in the same field battle at the same time.

Pre-battle manoeuvres always follow the same routine as laid out in the pre-battle manoeuvre flow chart. Black boxes show the umpiring process, blue boxes show the points of player interaction, yellow boxes show battlefield deployment notes, and the green box shows the notes on strategic pursuit fire.

At the end of the process, if a battle is indicated, it will be fought out on the table.



BATTLE
Both sides make up their armies by breaking down their forces by percentages found in the army lists. The tables work in the following way.
·        
       The player decides the percentage of infantry artillery and cavalry he will field.
·         
       The player then consults the tables and, working from top to bottom carrying any left over SP to the next line down, calculates the number of SPs of infantry, artillery and cavalry. Example: A player with 88 SP wishes to field 60% as infantry, 10% as artillery, and 30% as cavalry. 60% of 88 SP is 52.8 SP so 52 SP will be infantry. 10% of 88 SP is 8.8 SP, plus the 0.8 SP remaining from the infantry percentage is 9.6 SP, so 9 SP will be artillery. The remaining 27 SP will be cavalry.
·         
      The same system is now applied to the breakdown for each arm of the service with any remaining SP being carried over to the next stage. Example: The army will have 52 SP to spend on infantry. 15% (7.8 SP) must be used to buy militia units at 4 SP each, which buys 1 militia unit and leaves 3.8 SP in the kitty. 20% (10.4 SP) must be used to buy grenadiers units at 4 SP each but this is increased to 14.2 SP because of the SP left over from the purchase of militia – it buys 3 units of grenadiers and leaves 2.2 SP in the kitty. 0% will be spent on light infantry so the remaining 36 SP will be used to buy 9 line infantry units at 4 SP each. Nothing remains in the kitty to buy extra artillery units when that stage of unit buying is undertaken.
·         
       If, after buying troops for all three services 1 SP remains it is counted as half a unit of irregular cavalry, held off table, that can be used post battle in calculating ‘Strategic Pursuit Fire’.

Any named generals present, except the highest ranking general (C-in-C of the force) must be assigned a brigade. All other brigades will be assigned a randomly generated brigadier. All brigades will consist of one to six infantry regiments or one to four cavalry regiments; artillery is always unattached.

The winning army is the one that holds the battlefield after his opponent is reduced to zero morale and declares he is withdrawing on an officer check card; or automatically, when all of the enemy units have had their battle quality downgraded by failed major morale checks.

If neither side has achieved victory on the battlefield before the end of turn 8, nightfall, the battle is a draw and both armies will withdraw. No battle in this campaign may ever last more than one day.

Once any winner has been decided each side works out its SP losses. Count up all Unit Integrity points lost at any point during the game (rallied or not) and divide by 3. The result is the total number of SPs lost by the army in the battle. One in five lost SP go to POW camps. One in three of the victors lost SP, and one in five of the losers lost SP, go to hospital.

RETREAT AFTER BATTLE
If by the end of 8 turns of battle, one or both armies withdraws, they must be retreated one, two or three dots towards a friendly controlled dot.

If one side has won the battle it may carry out strategic pursuit fire on the enemy army as it withdraws.

If a retreating army must pass through an enemy army or enemy controlled dot it will take strategic pursuit fire.

A force cannot move on the turn following battle regardless if it won or lost the battle.
Having retreated, if the finishes the turn in an unfriendly dot it is out of supply at the end of the turn.



STRATEGIC PURSUIT FIRE
 Where one side has won the battle:
·       First total the total number of non-broken, shaken or disordered cavalry units in each army that remain in the field, counting hussars and irregular cavalry as double. If the retreating army has a higher number no pursuit fire is carried out. If the winning side has a higher number pursuit fire is carried out.
·         
       If pursuit fire occurs multiply the positive difference in ‘cavalry units’ by the winning general’s initiative rating. Example: The Auzzians are forced to retreat and they have ‘5 units worth’ of cavalry capable of preventing pursuit whilst the Ruspinians have ‘10 units worth’ of cavalry capable of pursuit. The Ruspinians have more cavalry so carry out strategic pursuit fire: They have 5 more units of cavalry and are commanded by a general rated as initiative value 3 for a strategic pursuit fire factor of 15.
·         
       For each strategic pursuit fire factor roll 1D6. For each 'five' or ‘six’ rolled the retreating army loses  1 SP. These are all killed outright – no hospitals or POW camps for these unfortunate sods.

Where one side must retreat through an enemy army or enemy controlled dot.
·         
       When retreating through an enemy army, divide the number of SPs in the blocking army by 8 (rounding up) multiplied by the blocking army’s C-in-C to determine the strategic pursuit fire factor.
·        
       When retreating through enemy controlled dots, use the VP value of dot as the strategic pursuit fire factor.
·         
       For each strategic pursuit fire factor roll 1D6. For each ‘six’ rolled the retreating army loses 1 SP outright.

PHASE 4: RESOLVE SIEGES
See page 3.

PHASE 5: DELIVER NEW GENERALS.
See page 2.

PHASE 6: ACTIVATE CHARACTERISATION CARDS.
See page 4.

PHASE 7: RE-LOCATE HOSPITALS AND POW CAMPS.
See page 4.

PHASE 8: ASSIGN NEW RECRUITS, CONVALESCED CASUALTIES AND RELEASED POW SPs.
See page 4.

PHASE 9: ASSESS LINES OF SUPPLY.
See page 3.




ARMY LIST
The basic army for all three duchies is the same.
Infantry 50% - 60% SPs
Artillery 5% - 12.5% SPs
Cavalry 30% - 40% SPs

INFANTRY BREAKDOWN AND STATS
Type
Campaign Notes
BDV
Quality Roll Adj.
Notes

P
%
Cost
Fire
Melee
Morale
Militia
15%
4
8
6
4
ƒ
Guard

Grenadier
20%
4
12
10
8
ƒ
Advanced Drill

Light
0 - 10%
2
8
8
6
ƒ
Infantry Move in Open

Line
55 - 65%
4
10
8
6
ƒ
Musket Reload

Guard
1 max
4
12+1
12
10
ƒ


ARTILLERY BREAKDOWN AND STATS
Type
Campaign Notes
BDV
Quality Roll Adj.
Notes

P
%
Cost
Fire
Melee
Morale
Heavy
30 - 50%
3
10
4
6
ƒ
Integral Sappers

Field
50 - 70%
2
8
4
6
ƒ
Siege Artillery

Howitzers
0 - 20%
2
8
4
6
ƒ
Horse Artillery

Siege
1 max
3
12
4
6
ƒ


CAVALRY BREAKDOWN AND STATS
Type
Campaign Notes
BDV
Quality Roll Adj.
Notes

P
%
Cost
Fire
Melee
Morale
Dragoons
25 - 30%
3
-
8 / 10E
6 / 8E
ƒ
Elite Dragoons

Hussars
25 - 30%
3
8
6 / 8E
6 / 8E
ƒ
Elite Hussars

Cuirassier
40%
3
-
10
6 / 8E
ƒ
Elite Cuirassier

Irregular
0 - 10%
2
8
4
4
ƒ
Shock Hussars

Guard
1 max
3
-
12
10
ƒ
Cavalry Move In Open








Shock Cavalry Melee



OFFICER STATS
#
Name
Initiative
Quality Roll Adj.
Notes

P
10
      
2
3
4
ƒ
Superior Hospitals

9

2
3
4
ƒ
Superior Recruitment Depot

8

2
3
4
ƒ
Specialisation (___________)     

7

2
3
4
ƒ
Heroic Moment

6

2
3
4
ƒ
Officer Check

5

2
3
4
ƒ

4

2
3
4
ƒ

3

2
3
4
ƒ

2

2
3
4
ƒ

1

2
3
4
ƒ


That's what I have. And I hope it's of use to someone.